Thứ Hai, ngày 04 tháng 1 năm 2016

Adverbs

ADVERBS: THE -E ENDING

Adverbs typically end in -e. An adverb describes or modifies a verb. We have already seen several examples of adverbs:


ADVERBS CAN MODIFY ADJECTIVES

Tio estas vere bela.
That is truly beautiful.

ADVERB AFTER ESTAS

After estas, when there is no subject of the sentence, use an adverb, not an adjective.


Thứ Tư, ngày 30 tháng 12 năm 2015

Verbs: Conditional

THE CONDITIONAL

Use the verb ending -us to talk about non-real, imagined situations, or to make polite requests.

Non-real situations
Non-real situations are the topic of "if...then" sentences, like this one:
Se mi estus sana, mi laborus. = If I were healthy, I would work.

Notice that Esperanto, unlike English, uses the -us form in both parts of the sentence - since both parts are non-real.

We also talk about non-real situations when we express our wish for something to be different from what/how it actually is:
Se li nur estus iom pli bela! = If only he were a bit more handsome!

The -us ending does not carry any temporal information. Thus, it is possible to use the -us ending for events in the past as well. When doing so, context usually indicates that we are talking about the past:
Se Zamenhof scius la ĉinan, Esperanto estus malsama. = If Zamenhof had known Chinese, Esperanto would be different.
Se vi dirus tion al mi jam hieraŭ, mi ne farus la eraron. = If you had told me this already yesterday, I would not have made the mistake.

Polite requests
The -us form can also be used to express polite requests.
Ĉu vi povus doni al mi la buteron? = Could you pass me the butter?
Mi ŝatus iom pli da sukero. = I would like a little more sugar.

REVIEW OF -N FOR DIRECTION

Remember to use the -n ending when talking about a movement towards a certain place. For example
Metu la dosierojn en dosierujon! = Put the files into a folder!

RETPOŜTO VS. RETMESAĜO

Retpoŝto means email in general; the service that allows you to send and receive electronic messages. A message sent by retpoŝto (email) is most often called retmesaĝo (email).

Thứ Ba, ngày 29 tháng 12 năm 2015

Home

COMPOUND WORDS

Combining two words to make a new word is very common in Esperanto. The vowel ending of the first word may be dropped, or it may be retained if that makes the word easier to pronounce:


Also note that a hyphen may be added:
Esperanto + klubo = Esperantoklubo or Esperanto-klubo.

PURIGI

Pur-ig-i means to clean (to make something clean), and comes from the adjective pura (clean). We will learn more about the affix -ig in future modules.

MANĜILARO

This is an example of a word with two affixes, and illustrates how easy and straightforward it is to build words in Esperanto:
Manĝ + -il + -aro =manĝilaro
Eat + tool + group = silverware

LOĜI AND VIVI



English speakers usually use the verb “to live” for both meanings. However you should aim to make the distinction and use loĝi and vivi correctly in Esperanto, so that you will be reliably understood.

MEM

Mem means [my,your,his,her]-self, or [our, them]-selves.
It is used for emphasis:


Chủ Nhật, ngày 01 tháng 11 năm 2015

Adjectives

ADJECTIVES
An adjective takes the -a ending and has to agree in number with the noun it modifies:
  • bona homo = a good person
  • bonaj homoj = good people
  • Homoj estas bonaj. = People are good.
An adjective that modifies an object also takes the -n (direct object) ending:
Mi manĝas belajn kukojn. = I eat beautiful cakes. 
In summary, an adjective's ending must match the ending of the noun it modifies.

WORD ORDER
In normal word order the adjective(s) come before the noun. In literature you may also see a few adjectives after the noun in order to create emphasis. It is best in general to try to stick to the normal word order.

ADJECTIVES INTO VERBS
In Esperanto, adjectives are easily transformed into verbs, and are frequently used that way in conversations and in written texts . The most common form, however, is stillestas + adjective :
Mi estas preta = Mi pretas = I am ready. 
Mi estas malsata = Mi malsatas = I am hungry.

MAL-
The prefix mal- simply means “opposite”. It does not mean “bad” as in some romance languages.
granda = big, large
malgranda = small, little
Mal- can be used anytime you need to express a true opposite. Beware of classifying situations as opposites which logically aren't:
nigra kaj blanka = “black and white”. These are not opposites. (Don't say malnigra) 
knaboj kaj knabinoj= “boys and girls”. These are not opposites. (Don’t say malknaboj)

PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS:


CORRELATIVES WITH -IA
Correlatives with -ia refer to a kind, sort, or type of something. They are adjectives and take the -j and -n endings where needed.

Thứ Ba, ngày 27 tháng 10 năm 2015

Affixes 1

AFFIXES

One of the greatest advantages of Esperanto is its flexible system of word particles that can be attached either in front of a word (prefixes) or at the end of a word (suffixes). There are 10 prefixes and 31 suffixes, which can be used to modify any word. The rule is that it's a valid word if it makes sense. When you finish the Affixes 3 module, you will know all of them! In this lesson, you'll review one prefix (mal-) and learn many suffixes:

See how these affixes affect the word varma:


Affixes as roots
Note that even though affixes in Esperanto are usually attached to a root word, they can also be used as roots themselves, for example:

Thứ Hai, ngày 05 tháng 10 năm 2015

Imperative

IMPERATIVE: THE -U ENDING

The -u ending is used when ordering/ inviting someone else to do something or when telling or suggesting to ourselves what to do!


IMPERATIVE + INFINITIVE

An imperative may be followed by an infinitive:
Bonvolu manĝi! Please eat!
(NOT: Bonvolu manĝu. Do not use two imperatives one after the other in that way).

QUESTIONS WITH -U

In questions, the -u ending generally means "shall":
Ĉu ni iru? Shall we go?
Ĉu mi legu tiun libron? Shall I read that book?

THE -U ENDING IN SUBORDINATE PHRASES

We also use the -u ending in subordinate phrases (clauses) starting with ke, when the verb in the preceding, main part of the sentence expresses a want, desire, demand or preference:


This grammatical usage is also called the "subjunctive".

Thứ Năm, ngày 24 tháng 9 năm 2015

Occupations

GENDER MARKERS RELATED TO FAMILY MEMBERS, FRIENDS AND PROFESSIONS:

As mentioned in the Family lesson notes, nouns not relating to family have no base gender:

amiko: a male or female friend
dentisto: a male or female dentist

In these cases, you may choose to explicitly make a noun feminine by adding -in

amikino = a female friend 
dentistino = a female dentist 

Choosing to do this is more common in Europe than in the US, probably due to differences between English and various European languages. In this course, we will not routinely present the feminine form of professions. However your responses using the feminine form when appropriate will be accepted as correct.

STUDENTO AND LERNANTO

Studento - a student enrolled in a college or university, or an adult learner.
Lernanto - a pupil, a student in a primary school, middle school or high school.

FARIĜI

Fariĝi (to become) contains the -iĝ affix so nouns following it do not take the -n ending, as they are not considered direct objects. We will learn more about the -affix in later lessons.

ŜAJNAS KE

Ŝajnas ke... means "It seems that..."