Thứ Tư, 30 tháng 12, 2015

Verbs: Conditional


Use the verb ending -us to talk about non-real, imagined situations, or to make polite requests.

Non-real situations
Non-real situations are the topic of "if...then" sentences, like this one:
Se mi estus sana, mi laborus. = If I were healthy, I would work.

Notice that Esperanto, unlike English, uses the -us form in both parts of the sentence - since both parts are non-real.

We also talk about non-real situations when we express our wish for something to be different from what/how it actually is:
Se li nur estus iom pli bela! = If only he were a bit more handsome!

The -us ending does not carry any temporal information. Thus, it is possible to use the -us ending for events in the past as well. When doing so, context usually indicates that we are talking about the past:
Se Zamenhof scius la ĉinan, Esperanto estus malsama. = If Zamenhof had known Chinese, Esperanto would be different.
Se vi dirus tion al mi jam hieraŭ, mi ne farus la eraron. = If you had told me this already yesterday, I would not have made the mistake.

Polite requests
The -us form can also be used to express polite requests.
Ĉu vi povus doni al mi la buteron? = Could you pass me the butter?
Mi ŝatus iom pli da sukero. = I would like a little more sugar.


Remember to use the -n ending when talking about a movement towards a certain place. For example
Metu la dosierojn en dosierujon! = Put the files into a folder!


Retpoŝto means email in general; the service that allows you to send and receive electronic messages. A message sent by retpoŝto (email) is most often called retmesaĝo (email).

Thứ Ba, 29 tháng 12, 2015



Combining two words to make a new word is very common in Esperanto. The vowel ending of the first word may be dropped, or it may be retained if that makes the word easier to pronounce:

Also note that a hyphen may be added:
Esperanto + klubo = Esperantoklubo or Esperanto-klubo.


Pur-ig-i means to clean (to make something clean), and comes from the adjective pura (clean). We will learn more about the affix -ig in future modules.


This is an example of a word with two affixes, and illustrates how easy and straightforward it is to build words in Esperanto:
Manĝ + -il + -aro =manĝilaro
Eat + tool + group = silverware


English speakers usually use the verb “to live” for both meanings. However you should aim to make the distinction and use loĝi and vivi correctly in Esperanto, so that you will be reliably understood.


Mem means [my,your,his,her]-self, or [our, them]-selves.
It is used for emphasis:

Chủ Nhật, 1 tháng 11, 2015


An adjective takes the -a ending and has to agree in number with the noun it modifies:
  • bona homo = a good person
  • bonaj homoj = good people
  • Homoj estas bonaj. = People are good.
An adjective that modifies an object also takes the -n (direct object) ending:
Mi manĝas belajn kukojn. = I eat beautiful cakes. 
In summary, an adjective's ending must match the ending of the noun it modifies.

In normal word order the adjective(s) come before the noun. In literature you may also see a few adjectives after the noun in order to create emphasis. It is best in general to try to stick to the normal word order.

In Esperanto, adjectives are easily transformed into verbs, and are frequently used that way in conversations and in written texts . The most common form, however, is stillestas + adjective :
Mi estas preta = Mi pretas = I am ready. 
Mi estas malsata = Mi malsatas = I am hungry.

The prefix mal- simply means “opposite”. It does not mean “bad” as in some romance languages.
granda = big, large
malgranda = small, little
Mal- can be used anytime you need to express a true opposite. Beware of classifying situations as opposites which logically aren't:
nigra kaj blanka = “black and white”. These are not opposites. (Don't say malnigra) 
knaboj kaj knabinoj= “boys and girls”. These are not opposites. (Don’t say malknaboj)


Correlatives with -ia refer to a kind, sort, or type of something. They are adjectives and take the -j and -n endings where needed.

Thứ Ba, 27 tháng 10, 2015

Affixes 1


One of the greatest advantages of Esperanto is its flexible system of word particles that can be attached either in front of a word (prefixes) or at the end of a word (suffixes). There are 10 prefixes and 31 suffixes, which can be used to modify any word. The rule is that it's a valid word if it makes sense. When you finish the Affixes 3 module, you will know all of them! In this lesson, you'll review one prefix (mal-) and learn many suffixes:

See how these affixes affect the word varma:

Affixes as roots
Note that even though affixes in Esperanto are usually attached to a root word, they can also be used as roots themselves, for example:

Thứ Hai, 5 tháng 10, 2015



The -u ending is used when ordering/ inviting someone else to do something or when telling or suggesting to ourselves what to do!


An imperative may be followed by an infinitive:
Bonvolu manĝi! Please eat!
(NOT: Bonvolu manĝu. Do not use two imperatives one after the other in that way).


In questions, the -u ending generally means "shall":
Ĉu ni iru? Shall we go?
Ĉu mi legu tiun libron? Shall I read that book?


We also use the -u ending in subordinate phrases (clauses) starting with ke, when the verb in the preceding, main part of the sentence expresses a want, desire, demand or preference:

This grammatical usage is also called the "subjunctive".

Thứ Năm, 24 tháng 9, 2015



As mentioned in the Family lesson notes, nouns not relating to family have no base gender:

amiko: a male or female friend
dentisto: a male or female dentist

In these cases, you may choose to explicitly make a noun feminine by adding -in

amikino = a female friend 
dentistino = a female dentist 

Choosing to do this is more common in Europe than in the US, probably due to differences between English and various European languages. In this course, we will not routinely present the feminine form of professions. However your responses using the feminine form when appropriate will be accepted as correct.


Studento - a student enrolled in a college or university, or an adult learner.
Lernanto - a pupil, a student in a primary school, middle school or high school.


Fariĝi (to become) contains the -iĝ affix so nouns following it do not take the -n ending, as they are not considered direct objects. We will learn more about the -affix in later lessons.


Ŝajnas ke... means "It seems that..."

Thứ Tư, 23 tháng 9, 2015

Dates and Time


The -e ending is used when talking about a reoccurring event.
La renkontiĝo okazas sabate. = The meeting happens on Saturdays / every Saturday.

The -n ending is used when talking about the upcoming or past occurrence of a specificevent:
Mi alvenos sabaton. = I will arrive (on) Saturday.
Ni venos la dek-kvinan de oktobro. = We will come (on) the 15th of October.

The -n ending is also used to express duration:
Mi restis unu horon (= dum unu horo). = I stayed for one hour.
Li vojaĝos la tutan tagon (= dum la tuta tago). = He will travel all day (the whole day).


Upper Case or Lower Case? 
Months can either start with a lower case or capital letter: januaro, februaro; Januaro, Februaro. In this course, we have chosen to present the lowercase form.
Days of the week always are in lower case: lundo, mardo.


In many countries, a 24-hour clock is often used. In that system, all times after 12 noon are formed by adding 12 to the clock time, so "am" and "pm" are not needed:


A transitive verb (objekta verbo) is a verb that requires a direct object. An intransitive verb (senobjekta verbo) is a verb that does not take an object. With an intransitive verb, the subject plus the verb can form a complete sentence. Komenci and komenciĝi, below, are examples of transitive and intransitive verbs
Komenci, komenciĝi: what is the difference?

Komenci (transitive) means to start or begin something, and takes a direct object with an-n ending:

Mi komencas la manĝon. = I am starting/beginning the meal.

Komenciĝi (intransitive) includes the -iĝ affix and means to begin or start on its own. It does not take a direct object:
La manĝo komenciĝas. = The meal is starting/beginning.

A more detailed explanation of transitive / intransitive verbs can be found in the notes for the module Verbs Present. You will learn more about the -iĝ affix in a module dedicated to both the -iĝ and the -ig affix.


All the question words we have learned so far start with ki-, which has the general meaning of "what":

Similar words starting with ti- (general meaning of "that") are related to the question words:

And words starting with ĉi- (general meaning of "all") are also related:

All of these words (and more that we will learn as the course progresses) are part of a group of words in Esperanto called Correlatives (Eo: korelativoj). In Esperanto they are also called tabelvortoj because they can easily be arranged in one big table / chart.

In this module we learn iam (at any time, sometimes, ever) and neniam (at no time, never) to round out the words ending with -am that relate to time.

Finally, here's an overview of all the correlatives that you have learned so far:

Thứ Ba, 22 tháng 9, 2015



For the past tense, use -is:
La arbo falas.
The tree is falling.
La arbo falis.
The tree fell.


The word for the number zero in Esperanto is nul or nulo.


Cardinal numbers such as one, two and three never take any endings in Esperanto.

Ordinal numbers such as first, second and third end in -a and function as adjectives, so they also must agree with the nouns they modify.


Fractions are made by adding the suffix -on to the base number. Fractions can be nouns (-o) or adjectives (-a) just like any other word in Esperanto. For example:

duona tago / duontago
a half day


Du mil okdek kvar
Two thousand eighty-four

For ordinal numbers, use hyphens between all the words in the number: ducent-okdek-sepa.

Du-mil-okcent-kvara homo
Two thousand eighty-fourth human


Note: It is advisable to avoid using the ambiguous word biliono, since this can either mean a billion or a trillion.


There is no exact equivalent of the word po in English, which means approximately "at the rate of". It is used to indicate that a certain amount has been given to each of several recipients, or given at regular intervals over a certain period of time. Po introduces the amount that is given each time or to each recipient, not the total amount to be distributed. The word po will always be followed by some expression of quantity. In English translations of sentences with po, you will often find the word "each":

Mi donis al la infanoj po du pomoj.
I gave two apples to each child.
I gave each child two apples.

La amikoj trinkis po du glasoj da vino.
The friends each drank two glasses of wine. 
The friends drank two glasses of wine each.

Po can also be used for prices.
La pomoj kostas po du dolaroj. 
The apples cost two dollars each.

Note that po always refers to the quantity being distributed, and NOT to the number of people or the period of time among whom or which they are distributed.

La tri virinoj kantis po kvar kantoj.
The three women sang four songs each.
(i.e. each woman sang four songs, and a total of 3 x 4 = 12 songs were sung.)

La kvar pomoj kostas po du dolaroj.
The four apples cost two dollars each.
(i.e. each apple costs two dollars, for a total cost of 4 x 2 = 8 dollars.)

Po is a preposition, and so is not followed by an accusative, the same as al, de or da. However, these days many people treat po as an adverb and add the accusative ending where appropriate. Both ways are considered acceptable:

Mi donis al la infanoj po du pomojn. 
I gave the children two apples each.
I gave each child two apples.

Ili trinkas po unu glason. 
They drink one glass each.


Besides being used to indicate a direct object, the -n ending is also used to indicate length, quantities, price, distance and measures. For example:

La ŝtofo estas du metrojn longa.
The fabric is two meters long.

La domo kostas multan monon.
The house costs a lot of money.

Ili marŝis dudek kilometrojn.
They walked twenty kilometers.


Esperanto distinguishes between nombro and numero although both are translated as “number” in English.
Nombro is a number that signifies an amount.
For example:
la nombro de personoj
the number of people

Numero is a number that shows sequence.
For example:
la numero de la domo
the house number

phone number

la lasta numero de la gazeto
the last number [edition] of the newspaper.

Thứ Hai, 21 tháng 9, 2015

Verbs: Past & Future

The following endings change the tense of a verb:
-is = past
-os = future
There are no exceptions to this rule!

Note: In English, sometimes part of a sentence is expressed in the present tense, even though the event actually takes place in the future. In Esperanto, both parts of the sentence are in the future tense, since they happen then. 
For example:
Kion vi faros, kiam vi estos gepatroj?
What will you do when you are parents?

Ni iros al la drinkejo ĉi-vespere.
We are going to the bar tonight.


There are a few verbs in Esperanto that can form a complete sentence on their own, without a subject. Most of these verbs are relating to weather:

Pluvas. = It is raining.
Neĝas. = It is snowing.


The preposition post means "after" and is usually followed by a noun:

post la matenmanĝo
after breakfast

post la oka horo
after eight o'clock

However, if you want to use post with a verb, you have to use post kiam:

Post kiam ni matenmanĝis...
After we [had] had breakfast...

Post kiam mi laboris, mi dormis.
After I [had] worked, I slept.

In the same way, antaŭ ol needs to be used before verbs.

Ni manĝis antaŭ ol li alvenis.
We ate before he arrived.

Thứ Bảy, 19 tháng 9, 2015



The most literal sense of a preposition is generally the correct word to use in Esperanto. Thus, one rides "in the train," not "on the train." For example:
  • antaŭ can mean "in front of" or "before", depending on the context. In conjunction with time it can mean "ago".
  • kontraŭ means "against", but also "at the cost/price of"; and can be used in the context of taking a medicine in order to treat an illness ("against" an illness).
In general, nouns following a preposition are not considered direct objects, so do not take the -n ending. One notable exception is the directional -n.


In addition to its use for the direct object, the -n ending is also used to show direction:
  • Ŝi saltas sur la tablo. = She jumps (up and down) on the table.
  • Ŝi saltas sur la tablon. = She jumps onto the table (from another location).
  • Pro = because of, on account of
  • Por = for
Mi parolas Esperanton pro vi.
I speak Esperanto because of you.

La donaco estas por vi.
The gift is for you.


Krom can mean either "except (for)" or "in addition to" depending on the context. For example:

Mi ŝatas ĉion krom araneoj.
I like everything except spiders.

Krome, ŝi havas abelojn.
Additionally, she has bees.


Verŝi means to pour a liquid such as water or oil, while ŝuti means to pour a non-liquid such as sand or sugar.

Thứ Sáu, 18 tháng 9, 2015



Per means “by means of”, although the English translation may use “by” or “with”. Use this when mentioning tools or methods of transportation. For example:
  • per martelo – with a hammer
  • per tranĉilo – with a knife
  • per buso, per aŭto, per trajno, per ŝipo – by bus, by car, by train, by ship
Note that per is a preposition and so the following noun does not take the –n ending.

Thứ Năm, 17 tháng 9, 2015



Words relating to the family are male by default. -in and ge- can be added to change the meaning. For example:


The possessive pronoun sia means his own, her own, its own or their own. It is used to indicate that an object relates to the subject.

Li havas sian hundon.
He has his [own] dog.

Li havas lian hundon.
He has his [someone else's] dog.

Ili nun estas en sia hejmo. 
They are now in their [own] home.

Ili nun estas en ilia hejmo. 
They are now in their [their friends'] home.

Note that sia is not used when the subject of the concerned clause is mi, ni, or vi. In these cases use its standard possessive pronoun:

Vi havas vian hundon.
You have your [own] dog.
Sia with multiple subjects

Li vidas, ke vi havas lian hundon.
He sees that you have his dog.

Notice that ke splits this sentence into two clauses. Each clause has its own subject: li and vi. In such cases, sia is only used if its subject is in the same clause, so in this example, sian is not possible, because li is in a different clause than hundon.

Karlo diras, ke la infanoj vizitas siajn geavojn.
Karlo says that the children are visiting their [own] grandparents.

In this example, "the children" is in the same clause as "grandparents," so siajn is used.

Ŝi vidas, ke hundo ludas per sia pilko.
She sees that a dog plays with its [own] ball.

Sia is also used in prepositional phrases. In this example, hundo is in the same clause as the prepositional phrase "with its ball," so we use sia to denote "its" own ball.

Thứ Tư, 16 tháng 9, 2015

Verbs Present


Transitive verbs
Transitive verbs may take a direct object. 
For example:
Mi trinkas sukon. = I drink juice. 
Mi sendas leteron. = I send a letter.

Intransitive verbs
Intransitive verbs do not require a direct object. 
For example:
Mi sidas. = I am sitting. 
La akvo bolas. = The water boils.

Hybrid verbs
In rare cases, some verbs can be transitive or intransitive, for example:

Mi drinkas. = I am drinking [alcohol to excess].
Mi drinkas bieron. = I am drinking beer [to excess].

Differences between Esperanto and English

Please note that the rules concerning verbs and objects are often more strict in Esperanto than in English.

In English, we know a lot of verbs that can be used both with and without a direct object. Take for example the verb "to close". It is usually used with an object: "I close the shop". But it is also possible to say "The shop closes", which we understand to be more or less equivalent of "The shop is being closed" or maybe "The shop closes itself".

In Esperanto, upon hearing "La butiko fermas -- (The shop closes --) we immediately ask ourselves: The shop closes what? And how can a shop even close something? It does not make sense. The verb fermi requires a direct object. (= "fermi" is transitive).

Let's look at another example: the transitive verb komenci (to begin, to start).
  • correct: Mi komencas la laboron. (I begin the work.)
  • also correct: Li komencas kuri. (He starts to run.)
  • incorrect: La tago komencas --. (The day begins --.)
While in English it is fine to say "The day begins", in Esperanto we would immediately ask ourselves: The day begins what? - and this makes no sense. [Therefore, to express the idea of "The day begins" in Esperanto, we have to use the suffix -iĝ that we will encounter later in this course. "The day begins" = "La tago komenciĝas".]

How about sentences with transitive words that do seem perfectly fine even without an object? Although manĝi is transitive, as in Mi manĝas kukon (I eat/am eating cake), it is perfectly fine to say Mi manĝas (I eat/am eating) as we can easily imagine that I am eating, well, some kind of food. (We can, however, hardly imagine anything that a shop might be closing!)


Atendi can mean "to wait," "to wait for" or "to expect."
 For example:
Mi atendas. = I wait.
Mi atendas buson. = I wait for a bus.
Mi atendas profiton. = I am expecting a profit.

Note: Kion vi atendas? can mean either "What are you expecting?" or "What are you waiting for?" depending on the context.

Thứ Ba, 15 tháng 9, 2015



As covered in Basics 2, ĉu is used at the beginning of a sentence to form a question with specific answers, such as a yes/no question. For example:
Ĉu vi volas danci? = Do you want to dance?
Ĉu vi amas ŝin aŭ min? = Do you love her or me?

In the middle of a sentence, ĉu means "whether" in a statement. For example:

Ŝi demandas min ĉu mi volas danci.
She asks me whether I would like to dance.

Ŝi volas scii ĉu mi parolas Esperanton.
She wants to know whether I speak Esperanto.


In English "if" can be used interchangeably with "whether", but se means "if" only in the sense of "given the circumstances."
For example:
Mi volas danci se vi ankaŭ volas danci.
I want to dance if you also want to dance.


The correlatives ending in -u (kiu, tiu, etc.) usually come before a noun. Notice how they take -j and -n endings just like adjectives.
For example:
Kiun libron vi legas?
Which book are you reading?

Mi ankaŭ volas legi tiujn librojn.
I also want to read those books.

They appear without a noun only if the context makes what is being talked about clear.
For example:
Jen kelkaj bonaj libroj. Kiun [libron] vi volas legi?
Here are some good books. Which [book] would you like to read?

Without other information, assume that kiu and tiu (and any other correlative ending in -u) refer to a person. For example:

Kiu venas? = Who is coming?

Kio estas tio? Tio estas libro.
What is that? That is a book.

Kiu estas tiu? Tiu estas libro.
Which is that one? That one is a book.

Kion vi havas? Mi havas tion.
What do you have? I have that.

Kiun vi havas? Mi havas tiun.
Which do you have? I have that one.

Kiujn vi havas? Mi havas tiujn.
Which ones do you have? I have those.


Ĉi expresses close proximity when used immediately before or after ti- words. For example:

Note: Since ĉi can go before or after ti- words, these are also valid: tie ĉi, tiu ĉi, tio ĉi.


Adding -n to kie or tie shows a change of location. 
For example:
Kie vi estas? Mi estas ĉi tie.
Where are you? I am here.

Kien vi iras? Mi iras tien.
To where are you going? I am going to there.

Note that the "to" is usually dropped in English, so this would be translated as "Where are you going? I am going there." Due to this lack of distinction in English, many English speakers have trouble remembering to add -n to tie and kie when talking about a change of location.

Thứ Hai, 14 tháng 9, 2015



The ending -i indicates the infinitive, for example ami (to love). This is the neutral form found in a dictionary. It is most often used to complement the verbs povas (can), volas (want), devas (must), and ŝatas (like). 
For example:
Mi volas danci. = I want to dance.
Mi ŝatas manĝi. = I like to eat.
Ĉu vi povas fari tion? = Can you do that?

NEK ... NEK ...

Nek means both "neither" and "nor" and follows English usage patterns. It is a conjunction like kaj and aŭ. 
For example:
Nek la rozo nek la pomo estas flava.
Neither the rose nor the apple is yellow.

Nek la rozon nek la pomon mi aprezas.
I appreciate neither the rose nor the apple.

La rozo estas nek rozkolora nek bela.
The rose is neither pink nor pretty.


Both scii and koni can be translated as "to know." While scii refers to intellectual knowledge, koni refers to knowing someone or something from experience.


Use scii when you know a specific fact:
Mi scias la respondon.
I know the answer.

Ĉu vi scias lian adreson?
Do you know his address?

Sentences that begin "I know that ..." will always be translated as "Mi scias, ke ..." as they are describing knowledge of a fact. For example:

Mi scias, ke Francio estas en Eŭropo.
I know that France is in Europe.

Mi scias, ke li ŝatas trinki kafon.
I know that he likes to drink coffee.


Typically, koni will be used to know a person or an animal. 
For example:
Ĉu vi konas mian patron?
Do you know my father?

Ŝi bone konas mian hundon.
She knows my dog well.

It can also be used to refer to a place or thing that one knows well from experience:
Mi konas Francion tre bone.
I know France very well. (Because I visited there often.)

Mi konas tiun libron
I know that book. (Because I already read it.)

Note: You will never use konas, ke because konas cannot be used to refer to knowing a fact.
Here is an example of scii and koni in the same sentence:

Mi scias, ke vi konas ŝin.
I know that you know her.



In Esperanto, the word for "pants" (US English) or "trousers" (UK English) is the singular noun pantalono. Thus pantalonoj is multiple pairs of pants.

        Esperanto                        English
         ŝtrumpo                   stocking (up to the knee)
         ŝtrumpeto                sock (up to the calf)

The suffix -et means "small,", so a sock is a small stocking (ŝtrumpeto)!


Mojosa (cool) is the most popular slang term in Esperanto. It originates from modern-jun-stila (modern-young-stylish). Reading out the first letter of each word gives Mo-Jo-So, which becomes mojoso (coolness). The adjective form is mojosa.

Chủ Nhật, 13 tháng 9, 2015



To talk about meat dishes, add -aĵ to the name of the animal that the dish is made from. 
For example, to talk about "pork" (meat from a pig), you use the word for "pig" (porko) and add the suffix -aĵ : porkaĵo.

In English you can say: "I'm eating beef", but in Esperanto you have to specify that you are eating "the meat of a cow, for example: Mi manĝas bovaĵon. The same sentence without -aĵ, Mi manĝas bovon, would mean "I'm eating a cow."


matenmanĝo = breakfast, the morning meal 
tagmanĝo = lunch, the midday meal 
vespermanĝo = dinner, the evening meal


So far we have learned several prepositions, including sur, por, sen, and kun. Note that there is no accusative -n for nouns after prepositions except in specific instances, which will be introduced later.


Ol (than), is a conjunction (a connecting word like "and") that functions as a comparison word. Either a subject or an object can follow it, just as in English:

Ni amas ŝin pli ol ilin.
We love her more than [we love] them.
(The object ilin follows ol.)

Li amas la hundon pli ol ili amas ĝin.
He loves the dog more than they love it.
(The subject ili follows ol.)


Jen means "here is" or "here are" like the following:
Jen la hundo. = Here is the dog.

Although less common, Jen may be followed by estas and a noun, for example:
Jen estas la hundo. = Here is the dog.



You may have noticed that all the question words start with ki-, except for ĉu.

Question words can also be formed by changing the beginning.

All of these words in both tables are part of a group in Esperanto called correlatives (tương quan). 5 beginnings and 9 endings can be combined logically together to form 45 (5x9) basic words. Around 10% of Esperanto text consists of correlatives, so it is critical to master them.


Kiom, tiom, iom, and ĉiom are followed by da, when they refer to quantities that are indefinite:

Kiom da akvo vi trinkas? 
How much water are you drinking?

Li manĝas iom da kuko.
He eats some cake.

When referring to amounts of a definite quantity, we use de:
Mi manĝas iom de la granda kuko.
I am eating some of the big cake.

Kiom de la sandviĉo li manĝas?
How much of the sandwich is he eating?

Neniom is usually used alone, since it describes the absence of a quantity. For example:
Mi havas neniom. = I have none.

Thứ Bảy, 12 tháng 9, 2015

Countries and Nationalities


Esperanto has a two-part system for naming countries and their inhabitants. This two-part system developed early in the history of Esperanto, and was based on the idea of a division of the world into "Old World" and "New World". The assumption was that the "Old World" countries took their names from the people who lived there. In contrast, "New World" countries consisted mainly of immigrants and their descendants, so their inhabitants were named after the countries they lived in.

So, for some "Old World" countries, mainly in Europe and Asia, the Esperanto root form gives the name of the inhabitant, and the name of the country is formed from it. For other "New World" countries,mainly in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, the Esperanto root form gives the name of the country, and the name of the inhabitant is formed from it.

Group 1 (mainly "New World")
The first group takes the name of the country as the root form (e.g. Brazil-o, Kanad-o) and an inhabitant of that country is formed by adding -an (member) in front of the ending -o. For example:

Brazilanoj loĝas en Brazilo.
Brazilians live in Brazil.

Kanadanoj loĝas en Kanado.
Canadians live in Canada.

Group 2 (mainly "Old World")
The second group takes the name of the inhabitant as the root form (e.g. ital-o, german-o) and its country name is formed by adding -uj in front of the ending -o. For example:

Italoj loĝas en Italujo. 
Italians live in Italy.

Germanoj loĝas en Germanujo. 
Germans live in Germany. 

Many people prefer to use the ending -io for Group 2 names rather than the traditional ending -ujo. This is how we teach country names here on Duolingo:

.#### About the Americas
Usono refers to the USA, while Ameriko refers to the entire American continent; sousonano is a US citizen, while amerikano is someone from North, Central, or South America.


The following table shows the rest of the accented letters, which are also calledĉapelitaj literoj (literally, "letters with hats").

Note: ĥ is pronounced as a strongly aspirated "h", like the "ch" in the Scottish word "loch" (not pronounced "lock"), while ŭ is normally only used after a and e, in the combinationsaŭ and eŭ.

Thứ Sáu, 11 tháng 9, 2015



Possessive pronouns are words like "my" and "your" in English. Unlike in English, these words are completely regular in Esperanto. Just add -a to the end of a pronoun to turn it into its possessive form.

Like other adjectives the possessives also take the -j (plural) and -n (accusative) ending when required.

Your bears drink my beer.
Viaj ursoj trinkas mian bieron.


Kio = what or what thing.
Tio = that or that thing.

Because kio and tio always refer to something indefinite, they never take the ending -j (plural), but take the ending -n (accusative) if they refer to a direct object.

What is that?
Kio estas tio?

What are you eating?
Kion vi manĝas?

We are eating that.
Ni manĝas tion.



-id is a suffix that means "offspring". In the context of animals and plants, it refers to young offspring.

kato (cat) + -id = katido (kitten)
hundo (dog) + -id = hundido (puppy)


When it comes to animals, the root form of the animal (i.e. bovo) is gender neutral. Therefore bovo can either be a bull or a cow. A bovino is specifically a cow. To make this unambiguously male, you need to add vir- in front of it, thus virbovo is a bull.



Although both da and de can be translated into English as of, they have different meanings:
Use da when you're talking about quantity.
Use de when talking about possession.
Note: the direct object -n ending (accusative) is not used after da or de.
For example:


Kiom means "how much" or "how many."

How much do you eat?
Kiom vi manĝas?

How much do you love me?
Kiom vi amas min?

How much is in the cup?
Kiom estas en la taso?


When you ask "how much" or "how many" of a specific thing or things, the word "of" cannot be omitted as it is in English:

How much (of) bread do you eat?
Kiom da pano vi manĝas?

How many (of) apples do you eat?
Kiom da pomoj vi manĝas?

How much (of) tea is in the cup?
Kiom da teo estas en la taso?

Note that kiom de is never correct, because de never indicates a quantity.


Multe da means a lot of, lots of, or many:

A lot of milk
Multe da lakto

Many (or a lot of) people
Multe da homoj


How old are you?
Kiom vi aĝas?
(Literally: How much you are-age?)

Kiom is used with age, since age is a quantity (of years).

Note: An alternative way to ask someone's age is Kiom da jaroj vi havas? (Literally "How many years do you have?")


A lack of...
Manko de...

A lack of something is not considered a quantity, so one says manko de and nevermanko da.
For example: 
A lack of money
Manko de mono

Thứ Năm, 10 tháng 9, 2015



To make a word plural, always add -j, so hundo (dog) turns into hundoj (dogs), and granda (big) turns into grandaj (the plural form of big). 
Note that, contrary to English, adjectives always take the plural form when they refer to more than one object/person/concept.
Men are handsome.
Viroj estas belaj.

The man and the woman are beautiful.
La viro kaj la virino estas belaj.
(because belaj refers to both la viro and la virino)

Big cats catch pretty birds.
Grandaj katoj kaptas belajn birdojn.

-oj is pronounced like the English oy, and the pronunciation of -aj is like the English eye.


Unlike adjectives and nouns, the cardinal numbers (one, two, three, etc.) do not take -j (plural) or -n (accusative) endings.

I have three apples.
Mi havas tri pomojn.



Some colors have their own names: blua (blue), verda (green), bruna (brown). 
Others are based on the colors of specific fruit or flowers, and require the suffix -kolora:
oranĝo (orange, the fruit) -> oranĝkolora (orange, the color)
rozo (rose, the flower) -> rozkolora (pink, the color).


Ankaŭ (also / too) is placed immediately before the word it refers to. It is never placed at the end of the phrase, as is common in English.

Ankaŭ mi ludas multe = I play a lot, too. (Interpretation: Others play a lot, and I, too, play a lot.)
Mi ankaŭ ludas multe = I play a lot, too. (There are other things that I do a lot, and I also play a lot.)

Note that in Esperanto, this distinction is made by the word order, whereas in English, we make this distinction by the word we emphasize when we speak. Say the above two English sentences, emphasizing the bold-faced word each time.


The adjective form of Esperanto is Esperanta. This can either be capitalized or not based on the preference of the author.

Languages 1


When you refer to a language, you must have la in front of it, because it is short for la ... lingvo.
For example, English is la angla, short for la angla lingvo.

A few languages, for example Esperanto, that don't belong to a certain people or a certain place, have their own names ending in -o (without la). So you would say, Mi parolas Esperanton and not Mi parolas la Esperanton.


Oni is the indefinite third person pronoun, equivalent to "one" in English. It is used frequently in Esperanto, more often than the pronoun "one" is used in English. One can use it both for general statements, and to use the active instead of the passive voice:

Oni diras, ke la angla estas malfacila lingvo.
People say that English is a difficult language.

Oni parolas Esperanton en la domo. 
Esperanto is spoken in the house.


Subordinate clauses are often introduced by ke ("that"): Li diras, ke vi parolas Esperanton.In English, It is possible to leave out "that", and say "He says you speak Esperanto", instead of "He says that you speak Esperanto." However, in Esperanto ke must always be included
Note also that there is always a comma before ke, though the English translation may not have one.

Thứ Tư, 9 tháng 9, 2015



Take a look at this English sentence: "The woman kisses the little boy." How do you know who is kissing, and who is being kissed? In English, you know by the word order. The woman comes before the verb, so she is doing the kissing (or to use the grammatical term, she is the subject of the sentence). The little boy comes after the verb, so he's the one being kissed (and he is the grammatical object of the sentence). 
In Esperanto, you can tell who is the subject and who is the object of the sentence by the endings. The subject of the sentence, i.e. the one who is doing the kissing, ends in -o. The object of the sentence, the one who is being kissed, has -n added after the -o . This means that you can always tell who or what is the subject, and who or what is the object, even if the sentence is switched around:

La virino kisas la malgrandan knabon. 
The woman kisses the little boy. 

La malgrandan knabon kisas la virino. 
The woman kisses the little boy. 
(Look for the -n! This still means "The woman kisses the little boy", even though the word order has been changed.)

Note that the adjective (in this case malgranda) also takes the -n ending, the same as the noun it refers to: malgrandan knabon .

These sentences mean the same thing, and are all equally correct. They all mean: "The woman kisses the small boy.": 
La virino kisas la malgrandan knabon. 
La malgrandan knabon kisas la virino. 
Kisas la virino la malgrandan knabon. 
Kisas la malgrandan knabon la virino. 
La virino la malgrandan knabon kisas. 
La malgrandan knabon la virino kisas. 

The -n ending in Esperanto is called the accusative (đối cách). Be aware that the accusative ending-n is never used with the verb estas: Li estas knabo.


Note how regularly Esperanto pronouns change as compared to their English counterparts:

Thứ Ba, 8 tháng 9, 2015

Common Phrases


Note that the word for bye in Esperanto is ĝis. This is short for ĝis la revido, which literally means until the re-seeing. So, ĝis actually means until, but by itself means bye.


When you use an expression like “Thanks” in English you are actually shortening a full statement. As you will soon learn in Esperanto, -n indicates the object of the sentence as you can see in the examples below: 

Dankon = Mi donas al vi dankon. 
Thanks = I give you thanks. ("thanks" is the object of the sentence).

Saluton! = Mi donas al vi saluton.
Hi!/Hello!/Greetings! = I give you greetings. ("greetings" is the object)

Feliĉan novan jaron! = Mi deziras al vi feliĉan novan jaron! 
Happy new year! = I wish you a happy new year! ("happy new year" is the object)


Kiu means "which person or thing". When used in relation to a person, it usually translates to "who".


People who speak Esperanto generally use their own names, but sometimes choose a name that is easier to pronounce in Esperanto, or an Esperanto nickname. Names for men in Esperanto generally end in -o, and nicknames in -ĉjo. A man named David could decide to use David, Davido, or the nickname Daĉjo. For a woman, Esperanto names can end in -o or -a, and nicknames end in -njo. A woman named Susan could use Susan,Suzano, Suzana, or the nickname Sunjo.

Thứ Hai, 7 tháng 9, 2015

Basics 2


Estas means am, is, or are. It is the present tense of the verb esti, to be. When it is the first word in a sentence, it means "It is":
        Esperanto                                  English
La nokto estas varma.                    The night is hot.
Estas varma nokto.                        It is a hot night.

Note: Do NOT say "Ĝi estas varma nokto". Ĝi (it) in Esperanto always stands for a noun. "Nokto estas varma nokto" is repetitive and would not make any sense, so we don't use "ĝi" in this setting.


Adjectives are words like fast, good, or big, which modify a noun. Remember that a noun always ends in -o in Esperanto. Adjectives, on the other hand, end in -a:
rapida = fast, granda = big, bona = good

In Esperanto, the adjective may be placed either before or after the noun with no change in meaning. "Bona viro" and "viro bona" both mean "a good man" and both are correct. In practice, most people place the adjective before the noun.


mal- is a prefix that means "the opposite of". Please note that while malbona means bad,mal- by itself does not mean bad (as it does in some other languages).

-ej is a suffix used to indicate a place:
kafo = coffee; kafejo = café (a place where you drink coffee, and other drinks.)


Adverbs (usually -ly words in English) modify verbs and adjectives. In Esperanto they almost always end in -e. Examples:
rapide = quickly, malrapide = slowly, bone = well


The noun following a preposition normally takes a simple -o ending (-oj in the plural). Other endings will be explained later. For example:

La virino estas en la kafejo. 
The woman is in the café.

Ni iras al la parko.
We go to the park.


Ĉu introduces a yes/no question. Unlike in English, the subject and verb do not need to be inverted:
         Statement                             Question
La kafo estas varma.             Ĉu la kafo estas varma?
The coffee is hot.                   Is the coffee hot?


Ĉu ne? = Isn't it?
Ĉu? = Really?