Thứ Tư, 9 tháng 9, 2015

Accusative

THE ACCUSATIVE ENDING: -N

Take a look at this English sentence: "The woman kisses the little boy." How do you know who is kissing, and who is being kissed? In English, you know by the word order. The woman comes before the verb, so she is doing the kissing (or to use the grammatical term, she is the subject of the sentence). The little boy comes after the verb, so he's the one being kissed (and he is the grammatical object of the sentence). 
In Esperanto, you can tell who is the subject and who is the object of the sentence by the endings. The subject of the sentence, i.e. the one who is doing the kissing, ends in -o. The object of the sentence, the one who is being kissed, has -n added after the -o . This means that you can always tell who or what is the subject, and who or what is the object, even if the sentence is switched around:

La virino kisas la malgrandan knabon. 
The woman kisses the little boy. 

La malgrandan knabon kisas la virino. 
The woman kisses the little boy. 
(Look for the -n! This still means "The woman kisses the little boy", even though the word order has been changed.)

Note that the adjective (in this case malgranda) also takes the -n ending, the same as the noun it refers to: malgrandan knabon .

These sentences mean the same thing, and are all equally correct. They all mean: "The woman kisses the small boy.": 
La virino kisas la malgrandan knabon. 
La malgrandan knabon kisas la virino. 
Kisas la virino la malgrandan knabon. 
Kisas la malgrandan knabon la virino. 
La virino la malgrandan knabon kisas. 
La malgrandan knabon la virino kisas. 

The -n ending in Esperanto is called the accusative (đối cách). Be aware that the accusative ending-n is never used with the verb estas: Li estas knabo.

PRONOUNS

Note how regularly Esperanto pronouns change as compared to their English counterparts:

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