COUNTRY NAMES AND NATIONALITIES
Esperanto has a two-part system for naming countries and their inhabitants. This two-part system developed early in the history of Esperanto, and was based on the idea of a division of the world into "Old World" and "New World". The assumption was that the "Old World" countries took their names from the people who lived there. In contrast, "New World" countries consisted mainly of immigrants and their descendants, so their inhabitants were named after the countries they lived in.
So, for some "Old World" countries, mainly in Europe and Asia, the Esperanto root form gives the name of the inhabitant, and the name of the country is formed from it. For other "New World" countries,mainly in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, the Esperanto root form gives the name of the country, and the name of the inhabitant is formed from it.
Group 1 (mainly "New World")
The first group takes the name of the country as the root form (e.g. Brazil-o, Kanad-o) and an inhabitant of that country is formed by adding -an (member) in front of the ending -o. For example:
Brazilanoj loĝas en Brazilo.
Brazilians live in Brazil.
Kanadanoj loĝas en Kanado.
Canadians live in Canada.
Group 2 (mainly "Old World")
The second group takes the name of the inhabitant as the root form (e.g. ital-o, german-o) and its country name is formed by adding -uj in front of the ending -o. For example:
Italoj loĝas en Italujo.
Italians live in Italy.
Germanoj loĝas en Germanujo.
Germans live in Germany.
Many people prefer to use the ending -io for Group 2 names rather than the traditional ending -ujo. This is how we teach country names here on Duolingo:
.#### About the Americas
Usono refers to the USA, while Ameriko refers to the entire American continent; sousonano is a US citizen, while amerikano is someone from North, Central, or South America.
MORE ACCENTED LETTERS
The following table shows the rest of the accented letters, which are also calledĉapelitaj literoj (literally, "letters with hats").
Note: ĥ is pronounced as a strongly aspirated "h", like the "ch" in the Scottish word "loch" (not pronounced "lock"), while ŭ is normally only used after a and e, in the combinationsaŭ and eŭ.