Thứ Sáu, 11 tháng 9, 2015

Da/De

DA AND DE

Although both da and de can be translated into English as of, they have different meanings:
Use da when you're talking about quantity.
Use de when talking about possession.
Note: the direct object -n ending (accusative) is not used after da or de.
For example:

KIOM

Kiom means "how much" or "how many."

How much do you eat?
Kiom vi manĝas?

How much do you love me?
Kiom vi amas min?

How much is in the cup?
Kiom estas en la taso?

KIOM DA

When you ask "how much" or "how many" of a specific thing or things, the word "of" cannot be omitted as it is in English:

How much (of) bread do you eat?
Kiom da pano vi manĝas?

How many (of) apples do you eat?
Kiom da pomoj vi manĝas?

How much (of) tea is in the cup?
Kiom da teo estas en la taso?

Note that kiom de is never correct, because de never indicates a quantity.

MULTE DA

Multe da means a lot of, lots of, or many:

A lot of milk
Multe da lakto

Many (or a lot of) people
Multe da homoj

KIOM AĜAS

How old are you?
Kiom vi aĝas?
(Literally: How much you are-age?)

Kiom is used with age, since age is a quantity (of years).

Note: An alternative way to ask someone's age is Kiom da jaroj vi havas? (Literally "How many years do you have?")

MANKO DE

A lack of...
Manko de...

A lack of something is not considered a quantity, so one says manko de and nevermanko da.
For example: 
A lack of money
Manko de mono

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