SPECIAL CONVENTIONS TO EXPRESS TIME
The -e ending is used when talking about a reoccurring event.
La renkontiĝo okazas sabate. = The meeting happens on Saturdays / every Saturday.
The -n ending is used when talking about the upcoming or past occurrence of a specificevent:
Mi alvenos sabaton. = I will arrive (on) Saturday.
Ni venos la dek-kvinan de oktobro. = We will come (on) the 15th of October.
The -n ending is also used to express duration:
Mi restis unu horon (= dum unu horo). = I stayed for one hour.
Li vojaĝos la tutan tagon (= dum la tuta tago). = He will travel all day (the whole day).
SPELLING CONVENTIONS FOR MONTHS AND DAYS OF THE WEEK
Upper Case or Lower Case?
Months can either start with a lower case or capital letter: januaro, februaro; Januaro, Februaro. In this course, we have chosen to present the lowercase form.
Days of the week always are in lower case: lundo, mardo.
THE 24-HOUR CLOCK
In many countries, a 24-hour clock is often used. In that system, all times after 12 noon are formed by adding 12 to the clock time, so "am" and "pm" are not needed:
TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS
A transitive verb (objekta verbo) is a verb that requires a direct object. An intransitive verb (senobjekta verbo) is a verb that does not take an object. With an intransitive verb, the subject plus the verb can form a complete sentence. Komenci and komenciĝi, below, are examples of transitive and intransitive verbs
Komenci, komenciĝi: what is the difference?
Komenci (transitive) means to start or begin something, and takes a direct object with an-n ending:
Mi komencas la manĝon. = I am starting/beginning the meal.
Komenciĝi (intransitive) includes the -iĝ affix and means to begin or start on its own. It does not take a direct object:
La manĝo komenciĝas. = The meal is starting/beginning.
A more detailed explanation of transitive / intransitive verbs can be found in the notes for the module Verbs Present. You will learn more about the -iĝ affix in a module dedicated to both the -iĝ and the -ig affix.
All the question words we have learned so far start with ki-, which has the general meaning of "what":
Similar words starting with ti- (general meaning of "that") are related to the question words:
And words starting with ĉi- (general meaning of "all") are also related:
All of these words (and more that we will learn as the course progresses) are part of a group of words in Esperanto called Correlatives (Eo: korelativoj). In Esperanto they are also called tabelvortoj because they can easily be arranged in one big table / chart.
In this module we learn iam (at any time, sometimes, ever) and neniam (at no time, never) to round out the words ending with -am that relate to time.
Finally, here's an overview of all the correlatives that you have learned so far: