Thứ Năm, 17 tháng 9, 2015

Family

GE-

Words relating to the family are male by default. -in and ge- can be added to change the meaning. For example:

SIA

The possessive pronoun sia means his own, her own, its own or their own. It is used to indicate that an object relates to the subject.

Li havas sian hundon.
He has his [own] dog.

Li havas lian hundon.
He has his [someone else's] dog.

Ili nun estas en sia hejmo. 
They are now in their [own] home.

Ili nun estas en ilia hejmo. 
They are now in their [their friends'] home.

Note that sia is not used when the subject of the concerned clause is mi, ni, or vi. In these cases use its standard possessive pronoun:

Vi havas vian hundon.
You have your [own] dog.
Sia with multiple subjects

Li vidas, ke vi havas lian hundon.
He sees that you have his dog.

Notice that ke splits this sentence into two clauses. Each clause has its own subject: li and vi. In such cases, sia is only used if its subject is in the same clause, so in this example, sian is not possible, because li is in a different clause than hundon.

Karlo diras, ke la infanoj vizitas siajn geavojn.
Karlo says that the children are visiting their [own] grandparents.

In this example, "the children" is in the same clause as "grandparents," so siajn is used.

Ŝi vidas, ke hundo ludas per sia pilko.
She sees that a dog plays with its [own] ball.

Sia is also used in prepositional phrases. In this example, hundo is in the same clause as the prepositional phrase "with its ball," so we use sia to denote "its" own ball.

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