Chủ Nhật, 13 tháng 9, 2015

Food

MEAT DISHES

To talk about meat dishes, add -aĵ to the name of the animal that the dish is made from. 
For example, to talk about "pork" (meat from a pig), you use the word for "pig" (porko) and add the suffix -aĵ : porkaĵo.

In English you can say: "I'm eating beef", but in Esperanto you have to specify that you are eating "the meat of a cow, for example: Mi manĝas bovaĵon. The same sentence without -aĵ, Mi manĝas bovon, would mean "I'm eating a cow."


BREAKFAST, LUNCH & DINNER

matenmanĝo = breakfast, the morning meal 
tagmanĝo = lunch, the midday meal 
vespermanĝo = dinner, the evening meal

PREPOSITIONS

So far we have learned several prepositions, including sur, por, sen, and kun. Note that there is no accusative -n for nouns after prepositions except in specific instances, which will be introduced later.

SUBJECT OR OBJECT AFTER "OL"

Ol (than), is a conjunction (a connecting word like "and") that functions as a comparison word. Either a subject or an object can follow it, just as in English:

Ni amas ŝin pli ol ilin.
We love her more than [we love] them.
(The object ilin follows ol.)

Li amas la hundon pli ol ili amas ĝin.
He loves the dog more than they love it.
(The subject ili follows ol.)

JEN

Jen means "here is" or "here are" like the following:
Jen la hundo. = Here is the dog.

Although less common, Jen may be followed by estas and a noun, for example:
Jen estas la hundo. = Here is the dog.

KUN AND KUNE

CORRELATIVES

You may have noticed that all the question words start with ki-, except for ĉu.


Question words can also be formed by changing the beginning.


All of these words in both tables are part of a group in Esperanto called correlatives (tương quan). 5 beginnings and 9 endings can be combined logically together to form 45 (5x9) basic words. Around 10% of Esperanto text consists of correlatives, so it is critical to master them.

USES OF DA AND DE AFTER THE -IOM GROUP OF CORRELATIVES.

Kiom, tiom, iom, and ĉiom are followed by da, when they refer to quantities that are indefinite:

Kiom da akvo vi trinkas? 
How much water are you drinking?

Li manĝas iom da kuko.
He eats some cake.

When referring to amounts of a definite quantity, we use de:
Mi manĝas iom de la granda kuko.
I am eating some of the big cake.

Kiom de la sandviĉo li manĝas?
How much of the sandwich is he eating?

Neniom is usually used alone, since it describes the absence of a quantity. For example:
Mi havas neniom. = I have none.

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