Thứ Hai, 14 tháng 9, 2015



The ending -i indicates the infinitive, for example ami (to love). This is the neutral form found in a dictionary. It is most often used to complement the verbs povas (can), volas (want), devas (must), and ŝatas (like). 
For example:
Mi volas danci. = I want to dance.
Mi ŝatas manĝi. = I like to eat.
Ĉu vi povas fari tion? = Can you do that?

NEK ... NEK ...

Nek means both "neither" and "nor" and follows English usage patterns. It is a conjunction like kaj and aŭ. 
For example:
Nek la rozo nek la pomo estas flava.
Neither the rose nor the apple is yellow.

Nek la rozon nek la pomon mi aprezas.
I appreciate neither the rose nor the apple.

La rozo estas nek rozkolora nek bela.
The rose is neither pink nor pretty.


Both scii and koni can be translated as "to know." While scii refers to intellectual knowledge, koni refers to knowing someone or something from experience.


Use scii when you know a specific fact:
Mi scias la respondon.
I know the answer.

Ĉu vi scias lian adreson?
Do you know his address?

Sentences that begin "I know that ..." will always be translated as "Mi scias, ke ..." as they are describing knowledge of a fact. For example:

Mi scias, ke Francio estas en Eŭropo.
I know that France is in Europe.

Mi scias, ke li ŝatas trinki kafon.
I know that he likes to drink coffee.


Typically, koni will be used to know a person or an animal. 
For example:
Ĉu vi konas mian patron?
Do you know my father?

Ŝi bone konas mian hundon.
She knows my dog well.

It can also be used to refer to a place or thing that one knows well from experience:
Mi konas Francion tre bone.
I know France very well. (Because I visited there often.)

Mi konas tiun libron
I know that book. (Because I already read it.)

Note: You will never use konas, ke because konas cannot be used to refer to knowing a fact.
Here is an example of scii and koni in the same sentence:

Mi scias, ke vi konas ŝin.
I know that you know her.

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