Thứ Ba, 22 tháng 9, 2015



For the past tense, use -is:
La arbo falas.
The tree is falling.
La arbo falis.
The tree fell.


The word for the number zero in Esperanto is nul or nulo.


Cardinal numbers such as one, two and three never take any endings in Esperanto.

Ordinal numbers such as first, second and third end in -a and function as adjectives, so they also must agree with the nouns they modify.


Fractions are made by adding the suffix -on to the base number. Fractions can be nouns (-o) or adjectives (-a) just like any other word in Esperanto. For example:

duona tago / duontago
a half day


Du mil okdek kvar
Two thousand eighty-four

For ordinal numbers, use hyphens between all the words in the number: ducent-okdek-sepa.

Du-mil-okcent-kvara homo
Two thousand eighty-fourth human


Note: It is advisable to avoid using the ambiguous word biliono, since this can either mean a billion or a trillion.


There is no exact equivalent of the word po in English, which means approximately "at the rate of". It is used to indicate that a certain amount has been given to each of several recipients, or given at regular intervals over a certain period of time. Po introduces the amount that is given each time or to each recipient, not the total amount to be distributed. The word po will always be followed by some expression of quantity. In English translations of sentences with po, you will often find the word "each":

Mi donis al la infanoj po du pomoj.
I gave two apples to each child.
I gave each child two apples.

La amikoj trinkis po du glasoj da vino.
The friends each drank two glasses of wine. 
The friends drank two glasses of wine each.

Po can also be used for prices.
La pomoj kostas po du dolaroj. 
The apples cost two dollars each.

Note that po always refers to the quantity being distributed, and NOT to the number of people or the period of time among whom or which they are distributed.

La tri virinoj kantis po kvar kantoj.
The three women sang four songs each.
(i.e. each woman sang four songs, and a total of 3 x 4 = 12 songs were sung.)

La kvar pomoj kostas po du dolaroj.
The four apples cost two dollars each.
(i.e. each apple costs two dollars, for a total cost of 4 x 2 = 8 dollars.)

Po is a preposition, and so is not followed by an accusative, the same as al, de or da. However, these days many people treat po as an adverb and add the accusative ending where appropriate. Both ways are considered acceptable:

Mi donis al la infanoj po du pomojn. 
I gave the children two apples each.
I gave each child two apples.

Ili trinkas po unu glason. 
They drink one glass each.


Besides being used to indicate a direct object, the -n ending is also used to indicate length, quantities, price, distance and measures. For example:

La ŝtofo estas du metrojn longa.
The fabric is two meters long.

La domo kostas multan monon.
The house costs a lot of money.

Ili marŝis dudek kilometrojn.
They walked twenty kilometers.


Esperanto distinguishes between nombro and numero although both are translated as “number” in English.
Nombro is a number that signifies an amount.
For example:
la nombro de personoj
the number of people

Numero is a number that shows sequence.
For example:
la numero de la domo
the house number

phone number

la lasta numero de la gazeto
the last number [edition] of the newspaper.

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