Thứ Bảy, 19 tháng 9, 2015



The most literal sense of a preposition is generally the correct word to use in Esperanto. Thus, one rides "in the train," not "on the train." For example:
  • antaŭ can mean "in front of" or "before", depending on the context. In conjunction with time it can mean "ago".
  • kontraŭ means "against", but also "at the cost/price of"; and can be used in the context of taking a medicine in order to treat an illness ("against" an illness).
In general, nouns following a preposition are not considered direct objects, so do not take the -n ending. One notable exception is the directional -n.


In addition to its use for the direct object, the -n ending is also used to show direction:
  • Ŝi saltas sur la tablo. = She jumps (up and down) on the table.
  • Ŝi saltas sur la tablon. = She jumps onto the table (from another location).
  • Pro = because of, on account of
  • Por = for
Mi parolas Esperanton pro vi.
I speak Esperanto because of you.

La donaco estas por vi.
The gift is for you.


Krom can mean either "except (for)" or "in addition to" depending on the context. For example:

Mi ŝatas ĉion krom araneoj.
I like everything except spiders.

Krome, ŝi havas abelojn.
Additionally, she has bees.


Verŝi means to pour a liquid such as water or oil, while ŝuti means to pour a non-liquid such as sand or sugar.

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