Thứ Ba, 15 tháng 9, 2015



As covered in Basics 2, ĉu is used at the beginning of a sentence to form a question with specific answers, such as a yes/no question. For example:
Ĉu vi volas danci? = Do you want to dance?
Ĉu vi amas ŝin aŭ min? = Do you love her or me?

In the middle of a sentence, ĉu means "whether" in a statement. For example:

Ŝi demandas min ĉu mi volas danci.
She asks me whether I would like to dance.

Ŝi volas scii ĉu mi parolas Esperanton.
She wants to know whether I speak Esperanto.


In English "if" can be used interchangeably with "whether", but se means "if" only in the sense of "given the circumstances."
For example:
Mi volas danci se vi ankaŭ volas danci.
I want to dance if you also want to dance.


The correlatives ending in -u (kiu, tiu, etc.) usually come before a noun. Notice how they take -j and -n endings just like adjectives.
For example:
Kiun libron vi legas?
Which book are you reading?

Mi ankaŭ volas legi tiujn librojn.
I also want to read those books.

They appear without a noun only if the context makes what is being talked about clear.
For example:
Jen kelkaj bonaj libroj. Kiun [libron] vi volas legi?
Here are some good books. Which [book] would you like to read?

Without other information, assume that kiu and tiu (and any other correlative ending in -u) refer to a person. For example:

Kiu venas? = Who is coming?

Kio estas tio? Tio estas libro.
What is that? That is a book.

Kiu estas tiu? Tiu estas libro.
Which is that one? That one is a book.

Kion vi havas? Mi havas tion.
What do you have? I have that.

Kiun vi havas? Mi havas tiun.
Which do you have? I have that one.

Kiujn vi havas? Mi havas tiujn.
Which ones do you have? I have those.


Ĉi expresses close proximity when used immediately before or after ti- words. For example:

Note: Since ĉi can go before or after ti- words, these are also valid: tie ĉi, tiu ĉi, tio ĉi.


Adding -n to kie or tie shows a change of location. 
For example:
Kie vi estas? Mi estas ĉi tie.
Where are you? I am here.

Kien vi iras? Mi iras tien.
To where are you going? I am going to there.

Note that the "to" is usually dropped in English, so this would be translated as "Where are you going? I am going there." Due to this lack of distinction in English, many English speakers have trouble remembering to add -n to tie and kie when talking about a change of location.

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