Thứ Ba, 27 tháng 10, 2015

Affixes 1

AFFIXES

One of the greatest advantages of Esperanto is its flexible system of word particles that can be attached either in front of a word (prefixes) or at the end of a word (suffixes). There are 10 prefixes and 31 suffixes, which can be used to modify any word. The rule is that it's a valid word if it makes sense. When you finish the Affixes 3 module, you will know all of them! In this lesson, you'll review one prefix (mal-) and learn many suffixes:

See how these affixes affect the word varma:


Affixes as roots
Note that even though affixes in Esperanto are usually attached to a root word, they can also be used as roots themselves, for example:

Thứ Hai, 5 tháng 10, 2015

Imperative

IMPERATIVE: THE -U ENDING

The -u ending is used when ordering/ inviting someone else to do something or when telling or suggesting to ourselves what to do!


IMPERATIVE + INFINITIVE

An imperative may be followed by an infinitive:
Bonvolu manĝi! Please eat!
(NOT: Bonvolu manĝu. Do not use two imperatives one after the other in that way).

QUESTIONS WITH -U

In questions, the -u ending generally means "shall":
Ĉu ni iru? Shall we go?
Ĉu mi legu tiun libron? Shall I read that book?

THE -U ENDING IN SUBORDINATE PHRASES

We also use the -u ending in subordinate phrases (clauses) starting with ke, when the verb in the preceding, main part of the sentence expresses a want, desire, demand or preference:


This grammatical usage is also called the "subjunctive".