An adjective takes the -a ending and has to agree in number with the noun it modifies:
- bona homo = a good person
- bonaj homoj = good people
- Homoj estas bonaj. = People are good.
An adjective that modifies an object also takes the -n (direct object) ending:
Mi manĝas belajn kukojn. = I eat beautiful cakes.
In summary, an adjective's ending must match the ending of the noun it modifies.
In normal word order the adjective(s) come before the noun. In literature you may also see a few adjectives after the noun in order to create emphasis. It is best in general to try to stick to the normal word order.
ADJECTIVES INTO VERBS
In Esperanto, adjectives are easily transformed into verbs, and are frequently used that way in conversations and in written texts . The most common form, however, is stillestas + adjective :
Mi estas preta = Mi pretas = I am ready.
Mi estas malsata = Mi malsatas = I am hungry.
The prefix mal- simply means “opposite”. It does not mean “bad” as in some romance languages.
granda = big, large
malgranda = small, little
Mal- can be used anytime you need to express a true opposite. Beware of classifying situations as opposites which logically aren't:
nigra kaj blanka = “black and white”. These are not opposites. (Don't say malnigra)
knaboj kaj knabinoj= “boys and girls”. These are not opposites. (Don’t say malknaboj)
Correlatives with -ia refer to a kind, sort, or type of something. They are adjectives and take the -j and -n endings where needed.