Thứ Tư, 30 tháng 12, 2015

Verbs: Conditional


Use the verb ending -us to talk about non-real, imagined situations, or to make polite requests.

Non-real situations
Non-real situations are the topic of "if...then" sentences, like this one:
Se mi estus sana, mi laborus. = If I were healthy, I would work.

Notice that Esperanto, unlike English, uses the -us form in both parts of the sentence - since both parts are non-real.

We also talk about non-real situations when we express our wish for something to be different from what/how it actually is:
Se li nur estus iom pli bela! = If only he were a bit more handsome!

The -us ending does not carry any temporal information. Thus, it is possible to use the -us ending for events in the past as well. When doing so, context usually indicates that we are talking about the past:
Se Zamenhof scius la ĉinan, Esperanto estus malsama. = If Zamenhof had known Chinese, Esperanto would be different.
Se vi dirus tion al mi jam hieraŭ, mi ne farus la eraron. = If you had told me this already yesterday, I would not have made the mistake.

Polite requests
The -us form can also be used to express polite requests.
Ĉu vi povus doni al mi la buteron? = Could you pass me the butter?
Mi ŝatus iom pli da sukero. = I would like a little more sugar.


Remember to use the -n ending when talking about a movement towards a certain place. For example
Metu la dosierojn en dosierujon! = Put the files into a folder!


Retpoŝto means email in general; the service that allows you to send and receive electronic messages. A message sent by retpoŝto (email) is most often called retmesaĝo (email).

Thứ Ba, 29 tháng 12, 2015



Combining two words to make a new word is very common in Esperanto. The vowel ending of the first word may be dropped, or it may be retained if that makes the word easier to pronounce:

Also note that a hyphen may be added:
Esperanto + klubo = Esperantoklubo or Esperanto-klubo.


Pur-ig-i means to clean (to make something clean), and comes from the adjective pura (clean). We will learn more about the affix -ig in future modules.


This is an example of a word with two affixes, and illustrates how easy and straightforward it is to build words in Esperanto:
Manĝ + -il + -aro =manĝilaro
Eat + tool + group = silverware


English speakers usually use the verb “to live” for both meanings. However you should aim to make the distinction and use loĝi and vivi correctly in Esperanto, so that you will be reliably understood.


Mem means [my,your,his,her]-self, or [our, them]-selves.
It is used for emphasis: